I identified personal jaguars based on novel spot models (Silver mais aussi al. 2004). Cubs included definitely more youthful and you may younger some one submitted with adult lady. We categorized girls because the reproductive once they was basically filed having cubs any kind of time area from inside the investigation season, and as nonreproductive, if they was indeed never ever submitted having cubs. I addressed exposure off cubs as the an objective standards for proof out-of breeding. Classification out-of breeding or non happened ongoing for the whole studies several months. Even if simplified, we think so it classification rationalized by the long reproductive period of female jaguars (we.age., ninety days gestation and 17 days care of cubs) and a lot of time (3–cuatro age) for you personally to very first reproduction (Crawshaw and Quigley 1991; De- Paula mais aussi al. 2013). I improve presumption one to reproductive lady take care of the regions to have long periods (i.elizabeth., years) and you may any short-term enjoy (we.e., losing cubs) wouldn’t change the territory proportions. In addition, i basically recorded elderly cubs (>ninety days old), which could enjoys live the newest assumed early peak inside teenager mortality noted various other high carnivores (Jedrzejewska et al. 1996; Palo). The newest character techniques try performed because of the a couple of article authors separately (MFP and you can MA) and confirmed by a 3rd (WJ). Unidentifiable catches was in fact omitted of then analyses. To possess take-recapture patterns, i laid out daily sampling instances such that i believed only one capture a-day per pitfall, i.elizabeth., binomial recognition records (Royle mais aussi al. 2009; Goldberg et al. 2015).
We used limit chances SCR habits for the secr dos.10.step 3 R bundle (Efford ainsi que al. 2004, 2009; Borchers and you will Efford 2008; Efford 2016) to help you imagine jaguar densities. These types of hierarchical habits describe (1) a good spatial model of the fresh delivery out-of creature activity facilities and you may (2) a good spatial observation model related the likelihood of discovering a single at a specific pitfall on the distance regarding animal’s hobby heart (Efford 2004). Towards observation design, we used a hazard 50 % of-regular detection mode:
where ? 0 represents the baseline detection probability at an individual’s activity center, ? defines the shape of the decline in detection away from the activity center and can be interpreted in terms of the animal movement distribution, and d specifies the distance between a detector (camera trap) and the activity center (Efford et al. 2009; Efford 2016). This detection model implies a Binomial distribution of detections of an individual at a particular detector (Efford and Fewster 2013; Royle et al. 2014). We used a 15-km buffer around the study area to include the activity centers of any individuals that pling. We checked the adequacy of the buffer size by examining likelihoods and estimates from models with larger buffers. We applied full likelihood models with three sex/reproductive status groups (adult males, adult reproductive females, and adult nonreproductive females) and six shorter sessions as covariates (Borchers and Efford 2008). By doing this, we also fulfilled the assumptions of the closed population model in analyzing our long dataset. We fit models with all possible additive combinations of sex/reproductive status groups and sessions as covariates on density (D), ? 0 , and ?. For density, we always used sex/female reproductive state as a covariate to provide an estimate of population structure and did not consider intercept-only models. We assessed how D, ? 0 , and ? differed across sessions and sex/reproductive status groups and how this variation influenced the overall density estimate. We evaluated models with AICc (corrected Akaike information criterion) and AICc weights (Hurvich and Tsai 1989; Wagenmakers and Farrell 2004). To test the effect of study duration on estimates of all parameters, we compared models that included session covariates in the parameters D, ? 0 , and ? (corresponding to the situation when model parameters were estimated based on separate sessions, as in short-term studies) with the best model that did not include any session covariates.